Most truck and automotive diesel engines
Main article: Diesel cycle
P-v Diagram for the Ideal Diesel cycle. The cycle follows the numbers 1?4 in clockwise direction.
Most truck and automotive diesel engines use a cycle reminiscent of a four-stroke cycle, but with a compression heating ignition system, rather than needing a separate ignition system. This variation is called the diesel cycle. In the diesel cycle, diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder so that combustion occurs at constant pressure, as the piston moves.
Otto cycle: Otto cycle is the typical cycle for most of the cars internal combustion engines, that work using gasoline as a fuel. Otto cycle is exactly the same one that was described for the four-stroke engine. It consists of the same four major steps: Intake, compression, ignition and exhaust.
PV diagram for Otto cycle On the PV-diagram, 1?2: Intake: suction stroke 2?3: Isentropic Compression stroke 3?4: Heat addition stroke 4?5: Exhaust stroke (Isentropic expansion) 5?2: Heat rejection The distance between points 1?2 is the stroke of the engine. By dividing V2/V1, we get: r, where r is called the compression ratio of the engine.
With early induction
Some systems disable alternator field (rotor) power during wide open throttle conditions. Disabling the field reduces alternator pulley mechanical loading to nearly zero, maximizing crankshaft power. In this case the battery supplies all primary electrical power.
Gasoline engines take in a mixture of air and gasoline and compress it by the movement of the piston from bottom dead center to top dead center when the fuel is at maximum compression. The reduction in the size of the swept area of the cylinder and taking into account the volume of the combustion chamber is described by a ratio. Early engines had compression ratios of 6 to 1. As compression ratios were increased the efficiency of the engine increased as well.
With early induction and ignition systems the compression ratios had to be kept low. With advances in fuel technology and combustion management high performance engines can run reliably at 12:1 ratio. With low octane fuel a problem would occur as the compression ratio increased as the fuel was igniting due to the rise in temperature that resulted. Charles Kettering developed a lead additive which allowed higher compression ratios.
The fuel mixture is ignited at difference progressions of the piston in the cylinder. At low rpm the spark is timed to occur close to the piston achieving top dead center. In order to produce more power, as rpm rises the spark is advanced sooner during piston movement. The spark occurs while the fuel is still being compressed progressively more as rpm rises.18
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